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2000 BC-today: The Aryans, Indians, Arabs, Mongols, Chinese and later on Jews, Christians and Muslims have used the population growth for millenniums as their silent and most potent weapon to acquire more land.  This weapon is more lethal and silent than anything else ever invented including all nuclear and chemical weapons.  It is based on hardly noticeable slow change that people realize when it is too late  This was the real reason for Kosovo conflict that Milosevic knew more than well - the Muslims in Kosovo needed more "LEBENSRAUM", as the term was was coined by Hitler in Germany.  The Zionist regime in Israel is behaving exactly as the third Reich and Hitler did in Germany for the Sudetenlands - the Zionists had the first hand experience how to do it in Palestine and they for learned it all. One must understand only a simple math.  A country today needs only 2.1 children per family to retain its population base.  However, if a family makes 10 to 15 children starting at 16 the population stability switches to population explosion. 

Warfare used to reduce mainly the male population with minor and irrelevant collateral losses in females.  The war business was the best possible way to keep the power in the hands of the ruling cliques for both sides.

The actual male loss ratio on battlefield is totally irrelevant.  To fill the "LEBENSRAUM", only a fraction of men are needed to keep up with the population growth - this is behind the Harem system and polygamy - Paradise is "for all".  A reasonable IQ growth inside the population was achieved simply by requiring that a man must own something of value to afford a wife, i.e. he had to prove that he was smart enough.  The "owner of the society" - the ruler himself - determined the timing of a new war. He had always countless good reasons in mind to rally the troops.  On the top of this list was always: "Is anyone here likely  to challenge my divine right to rule, i.e. who must go and participate to the bloodiest battles ahead?"  The war was actually a win win proposition for everyone involved!  The number of warriors got always directly to the Paradise, and those left behind got all the loot and could pick women even from a larger pool that included now all the recently widowed!

2000-1500: Jainism, India: Terracotta seals excavated at site suggest links of Jainism with Indus Valley civilization. Mention of Jain Tīrthankaras in Vedasiindicates pre-historic origins of Jainism.
2000: England, Completion of Stonehenge.
2000: Babylon, Construction of Babylon.
2000-1500: China, Xia Dynasty in China
2000-1450: Crete, Minoan civilization in Crete.
2000-1300: Finland, The Kiukainen Culture flourishes

2000-1200: Hittites invade Anatolia, and conquer Asia Minor.  They mastered and spread the use of Iron weaponry.   Their empire stretched from northern Turkey into Iraq and Syria, were famed for their lethal chariots and skill with horses.  This ancient Middle-Eastern empire had already mastered the art of biological warfare almost 3,500 years ago, according to an Italian scientist, Dr Siro Trevisanato.  

In the Biblical book of Genesis, the Hittites are named as the descendants of Ham, through his son, Canaan. They are described as a great power who dwell "in the mountains".  Hittites' glorious victories were down to their use of infected sheep, which they would slyly introduce into cities they wanted to conquer. The method of attack was simple. The Hittites would leave the sheep outside the targeted city. Locals would bring them in and either breed them or eat them, spreading the disease. "There is no doubt that these were the first weapons of mass destruction," he said. "They were waging bioterrorism".   The sheep carried tularemia, also known as rabbit fever, a devastating bacterial disease that is a potential threat even today, since there is no known vaccine.  The disease can pass from animals to humans, causing enormous skin ulcers and respiratory failure. Without antibiotic treatment, around 15 per cent of its victims die.

The plague was described in letters to the Egyptian king Akhenaten. The letter reports that donkeys, which also carry the disease, were banned from the city, in an attempt to stop the illness.  An epidemic of the disease weakened their ranks a few years after the Symra attack in 1325 BC.

1991-1937: Egypt, 11th Dynasty, beginning of  Middle Kingdom - the priests take the ruling power from the Kings...from now on everything must serve the purpose of the Gods...
1991-1937: Egypt, 12th Dynasty Middle Kingdom in Egypt, The first King Amenemhet I  throw out the Priests and reunited Egypt.  He constructed palaces and conquered Nubia. Osiris worshipping rose to power
1943: Abrahamic Covenant
1918-1738: Isaac
1900-729: Babylonia was a great power
1860: Development of early Semitic alphabet.
1857-1711: Jacob
1843: Abraham dies at the age of 175
1800-1780: Hammurabi of Babylon promulgates legal code.
1790: Babylonia, Hammurabi included into law the punishment for medical malpractice and regulated medical fees
1759-1539: Second Intermediate Period (13th - 17th Dynasties) in Egypt
1750: Joseph sold into slavery in Egypt
1700-1027: Shang  Dynasty in China,
1680-1580: Hyksos, the Semetic or Jewish Shepherd Kings invaded Egypt.  Horse was introduced first time to Egypt, The Hyksos ruling is a synonym with anarchy and destruction.  These Kings ruled Egypt from Avaris in the Delta during the Second Intermediate Period.
1650: Hyksos invasion of Egypt
1613: Job's trial - Job tested by Satan when Chaldeans raid Job's 3,000 camels
1600: The Nebra disk was built in Germany, measuring 32 centimeters in diameter, and is the oldest realistic representation of the cosmos yet found. It depicts a crescent moon, a circle that was probably the full moon, a cluster of seven stars interpreted to represent the Pleiades, scattered other stars and three arcs, all picked out in gold leaf from a background rendered violet-blue--apparently by applying rotten eggs.
1600: EGYPT attains prominence as FIRST WORLD POWER.
1600: Beginning of Mycenaean civilization in Greece.
1580: Pharaoh Amosis I drove the Hyksos out from the Egypt.
1539-1295: 18th Dynasty New Kingdom in Egypt. 1,473 - 1,458 BC,  Hatshepsut, the first known female ruler in the world, the fifth ruler of the 18th Dynasty, was the daughter of Thutmose I and Queen Ahmose. As was common in royal families, she married her half-brother, Thutmose II, who had a son, Thutmose III, by a minor wife. When Thutmose II died in 1479 B.C. his son, Thutmose III, was appointed heir. However, Hatshepsut was appointed regent due to the boy's young age. They ruled jointly until 1473 when she declared herself pharaoh.  Dressed in men’s attire, Hatshepsut administered affairs of the nation, with the full support of the high priest of Amun, Hapuseneb and other officials. When she built her magnificent temple at Deir el Bahari in Thebes she made reliefs of her divine birth as the daughter of Amun. Hatshepsut disappeared in 1458 B.C. when Thutmose III, wishing to reclaim the throne, led a revolt. Thutmose had her shrines, statues and reliefs mutilated.

1513:Hebrews were persecuted by Ramses II that ended to exodus from Egypt under Moses in 1513 BC; then settled to Canaan lands, Judaism is born.

The 12 tribes ruled first by Judges, 1150 BC, then under three Kings, Saul, David and Salomon, who built the Temple in Jerusalem.  The tribes then split to Israel and Judah.  Assyrians conquered Israel in 722 BC;  In 586 BC the Babylonian ruler Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Jerusalem and slaved the Jews to exile in Babylon.  Nebuchadnezzar built also the hanging gardens of Babylon.  After Persia conquers Babylon, in 537 BC, the Jews were repatriated to their homeland.  Judah was conquered by Alexander the Great 332 BC when he destroyed the Persian empire, then by the Romans in 63 BC, and after Rome by Islam in 637, until 1946 AD, minus a few some crusades by the Christians.

1513: The book of Genesis written by Moses
1512: The books of Exodus & Leviticus written by Moses
1500: Hinduism originates in the Indus River Valley (now part of Pakistan) had its beginnings when an Indo-European people known as the Aryans moved into this area about 1500 BC
1500: Composition of the Vedas begun in India, Hinduism.
1500-550: Finland, The Bronze-Age
1473: Conquest of Canaan - Israel is ruled by Jehovah, and 13-judges i.e. Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Barak, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Samson, and Eli for 356-years
1473: The books of Numbers & Deuteronomy written by Moses
1473: The book of Job written by Moses in the Wilderness
1450: The book of Joshua written by Joshua in Canaan.

1387-1348: Amenhotep III, who was the grandfather of the famed boy-pharaoh Tutankhamun, ruled from 1387-1348 B.C. at the height of Egypt's New Kingdom and presided over a vast empire stretching from Nubia in the south to Syria in the north.


1372-1354: Ikhnaton or Akhenaton [ä"kunä'tun] [Egyptian,=Aton is satisfied], king of ancient Egypt  of the XVIII dynasty; son and successor of Amenhotep III (see under Amenhotep I). His name at his accession was Amenhotep IV, but he changed it to honor the god Aton. He is important for religious innovations. He abandoned polytheism to embrace monotheism in form of Sun-God named Aton.   Aton, was god, and god alone, and that he was Aton's physical son.  The solar monotheism was absolute; the new system allowed no accommodations and no exceptions. Through the rays of the sun everything that lived had its being. In honor of Aton the new capital was called Akhetaton (the modern Tell el Amarna), and new provincial capitals were founded in Nubia and Syria. The royal artists founded a new artistic school, characterized by the abandonment of convention and a turning to nature (because it showed the power of the sun). Ikhnaton's fanaticism was his undoing. He defaced every monument carved with the name of Amon, previously the greatest god of Egypt. The Aton cult died with Ikhnaton because the sentiments of the priesthood and the people were outraged by his destruction of their traditions and by his terror-filled reign. After his death, his mummy was destroyed and most references to him were removed from temples and palaces. Ikhnaton's religious zeal also lost Egypt the empire, because he had seriously neglected the provinces. As a result, his successors, Sakere and Tutankhamen, received—instead of an empire including Nubia and Syria—only Egypt and some of the upper valley. There is a theory that Ikhnaton was coregent with his father, Amenhotep III, during the crucial years of change, but the question remains as yet unsolved. Of the many artistic achievements of the era of Ikhnaton, perhaps the most familiar today is the bust of his wife, Nefertiti.
1360: Amenhotep IV ( Akhenaton ) establishes worship of Sun God

1325: Hittites sacked the Phoenician city of Symra, on the borders of Lebanon and Syria.  A mysterious plague was recorded.  Many of the Hittites' glorious victories were down to their use of infected sheep, which they would slyly introduce into cities they wanted to conquer.  The sheep carried tularemia, also known as rabbit fever, a devastating bacterial disease that is a potential threat even today, since there is no known vaccine.  The disease can pass from animals to humans, causing enormous skin ulcers and respiratory failure.  Without antibiotic treatment, around 15 per cent of its victims die.

The plague was described in letters to the Egyptian king Akhenaten. The letter reports that donkeys, which also carry the disease, were banned from the city, in an attempt to stop the illness.  The method of attack was simple. The Hittites would leave the sheep outside the targeted city. Locals would bring them in and either breed them or eat them, spreading the disease.  Hittites paid a high price for their tactics. An epidemic of the disease weakened their ranks a few years after the Symra attack.

1300: Construction of Temple of Abu Simbel for Rameses II.
1200: Olmec civilization begins to flourish on Mexico.
Phoenicians, high point of their civilization: 1200–800 BC
. Phoenicians, the traders, explorers and colonizers established the cities of Byblos, Tyre (Lebanon), Sidon, Simyra, Arwad, and Berytus (Beirut) and in 814 BC, the city of Carthage. All shown in the Amarna tablets. Archeology has identified cultural elements of the Phoenician zenith as early as the third millennium BC. Phoenicians sailed to England for Tin and perfected the alphabet. However, we have found very little stories or testimonials related to them. Phoenicia was an early example of a "world-economy" surrounded by empires. Many of the most important Phoenician settlements had been established long before this.

Phoenician culture stepped up rapidly with a sudden advanvement of their ship building techniques. Herodotus's account (written c. 440 BC) refers to the Io and Europa myths. According to the Persians best informed in history, the Phoenicians began the quarrel. These people, who had formerly dwelt on the shores of the Erythraean Sea, having migrated to the Mediterranean and settled in the parts which they now inhabit, began at once, they say, to adventure on long voyages, freighting their vessels with the wares of Egypt and Assyria.


The league of independent city-state ports, with others on the islands and along other coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, was ideally suited for trade between the Levant area, rich in natural resources, and the rest of the ancient world. During the early Iron Age, in around 1200 BC an unknown event occurred, historically associated with the appearance of the Sea Peoples from the north. They may have been driven south by crop failures and mass starvation following the Thera eruption. They weakened and destroyed the Egyptians and the Hittites. In the resulting power vacuum, a number of Phoenician cities rose as significant maritime powers.

The societies rested on three power-bases: the king; the temple and its priests; and councils of elders. Byblos first became the predominant center from where the Phoenicians dominated the Mediterranean and Erythraean (Red) Sea routes. It was here that the first inscription in the Phoenician alphabet was found, on the sarcophagus of Ahiram (ca. 1200 BC). Later, Tyre gained in power. One of its kings, the priest Ithobaal (887-856 BC) ruled Phoenicia as far north as Beirut, and part of Cyprus. Carthage was founded in 814 BC under Pygmalion of Tyre (820-774 BC). The collection of city-kingdoms constituting Phoenicia came to be characterized by outsiders and the Phoenicians as Sidonia or Tyria. Phoenicians and Canaanites alike were called Zidonians or Tyrians, as one Phoenician city came to prominence after another.

1198-1166: Pharaoh Ramses III succeds his father Setnakhte,  He became the foremost Pharaoh of the 20th dynasty. During his reign Egypt was attacked on many fronts, but the most lasting problems of his time were internal corruption and crime. Ramses 3 was the last Pharaoh that had land in Palestine. Libyan invasion 1194 BC., Ramses III manages to drive them back. 1191 BC., Invasion of the Sea People, who probably set out from the Aegean Islands and Asia Minor. 1188 BC., New Libyan invasion, this time too, Ramses III drives them back. During his reign temples around Egypt grew into becoming a new power factors, while his own court became poorer, principally due to a change in the way of distributing taxes. There were attempts on his life before he decided to resign in favour of his son, Ramses IV. The achievements of Ramses III are represented on the walls of his mortuary temple at Madinatu Habu near Luxor. Temples and palaces built by Ramses III, were in the same tradition as under Ramses II
1175: Egypt divided into Upper and Lower Kingdoms.
1117: Saul begins his rule [40-yrs.] Prophet: Samuel / High Priest: Ahijah, Ahimelech
1100: Phoenicians develop alphabetic script.
1100: The book of Judges written by Samuel
1090: The book of Ruth written by Samuel
1077: David begins his rule [40-yrs.] Prophets: Nathan, Gad, Zadok / High Priest: Abiathar
1077: The book of 1-Samuel written by Samuel, Gad & Nathan
1066: Zhou dynasty begins in China.
1040: The book of 2-Samuel written by Gad & Nathan
1037: Solomon begins his rule [40-yrs.] Prophets: Nathan, Ahijah, Iddo / High Priest: Abiathar, Zadok [
1034: Construction of temple begins and is completed in 1027 BC
1027-771: Western Zhou  Dynasty in China,
1020: The book The Song of Solomon is written
1000: The book of Ecclesiastes is written by Solomon
1000: Israelite kingdoms established by David and Solomon,  building of the Temple in Jerusalem begins.
997: Rehoboam begins his rule [17-yrs.] Prophets: Shemeiah, Iddo [Shishak of Egypt invaded Judah and took treasures from the temple in Jerusalem]
997: KINGDOM DIVIDED to 2 Tribe K of Judah 390 years, and 10 Tribe K of Israel 257 years
997: Jeroboam begins his rule [22-yrs.] Prophet: Ahijah.
980: Abijah begins his rule [3-yrs.] Prophet: Iddo
977: Nadab begins his rule [2 yrs.] ~ See Nadab
977: Asa begins his rule [41-yrs.] Prophets: Azariah, Oded, Hanani [Zerah the Ethiopian came against Judah in war 967 BC
976: Baasha begins his rule [24-yrs.] Baasha assassinated Nadab and then began to rule as king
953: Elah begins his rule [2-yrs.]
951: Zimri begins his rule [7-days] Zimri, a military chief, assassinated Elah and then began to rule as king
951: Omri begins his rule [12-yrs.] Omri, chief of the army, began to rule as king. Tibni became king over part of the people, further dividing the nation. Omri overcame Tibni's opposition and became sole ruler of Israel c. 947 BC, Samaria became Omri's capital
940: Ahab begins his rule [22-yrs.] Prophets: Elijah; Micaiiah [Ahab marries wicked Baal worshiper Jezabel]
936: Jehoshaphat begins his rule [25-yrs.] Prophets: Jehu (son of Hanani), Eliezer, Jahaziel / High Priest: Amariah
930: The Ark of Covenant brought to the Temple in Jerusalem.
922: Ahaziah begins his rule [2-yrs.] Prophet: Elijah [Ahaziah, son of Ahab "became king" evidently his father was still living. Ahaziah's years may count from c. 919 BC
921: Jehoram begins his rule [12-yrs.] Prophet: Elisha. [Jehoram, son of Ahab began to rule as king of Israel, but in at least one text the brief rule of his brother, Ahaziah, who died sonless, also may have been credited to Jehoram.]
913: Jehoram begins his rule [8-yrs.] Prophet: Elijah
909: Jehu begins his rule [28-yrs.] Prophet: Elisha. [Jehu, a military chief, assassinated Jehoram and then began to rule as king, however, it seems that his years of kingship counted from c. 904 BC
906: Ahaziah begins his rule [1-yr.] High Priest: Jehoiada
904: Queen Athaliah usurped the throne and ruled [6-yrs.]
900: Etrusks enter central Italy
898: Jehoash begins his rule [40-yrs.] High Priest: Jehoiada
881: Jehoahaz begins his rule [17-yrs.] Jehoash evidently became associated with his father, Jehoahaz in the kingship
867: Jehoash begins his rule [16-yrs.] Prophet: Elisha
858: Amaziah begins his rule [29-yrs.] Jehoash of Israel captured Amaziah, breached the walls of Jerusalem, and took treasure from the temple
850: Homer writes Iliad and Odyssey.
844: The book of Jonah is written
832: Jeroboam II begins his rule [41-yrs.] Prophets: Jonah; Hosea; Amos
829: Uzziah begins his rule [52-yrs.] Prophets: Hosea, Joel (?), Isaiah / High Priest: Azariah (II)
820: The book of Joel is written
814: The city of Carthage was founded.
803: The book of Amos is written
800: Beginning of period of composition of the Upanishades.
789: Zechariah begins his rule [6-mos.] Zechariah, "began to reign" in some sense, but evidently the kingship was not fully confirmed as his until c. 789 BC
788: Shallum begins his rule [1-mo.] Shallum assassinated Zechariah and then ruled as king
788: Menahem begins his rule [10-yrs.] Menahem assassinated Shallum, then began to rule, however, it seems that his years of kingship counted from c. 790 BC
777: Pekahiah begins his rule [2-yrs.]
777: Jotham begins his rule [16-yrs.] Prophets: Micah, Hosea, Isaiah
776: First Olympic Games in Greece.
775: Pekah begins his rule [20-yrs.] Pekah assassinated Pekahiah and then began to rule as king
775: Hoshea begins his rule [9-yrs.] Hoshea assassinated Pekah and then "began his reign" in place of him, however, it seems that his control became fully established or possibly he received the backing of the Assyrian monarch Tiglath-pileser III in c. 748 BCHoshea begins his rule [9-yrs.] Hoshea assassinated Pekah and then "began his reign" in place of him, however, it seems that his control became fully established or possibly he received the backing of the Assyrian monarch Tiglath-pileser III in c. 748 BC
771-221: Eastern Zhou  Dynasty in China,  Spring and Autumn Period, ending to a Warring States Period
762: Ahaz begins his rule [16-yrs.] Prophets: Micah, Hosea, Isaiah / High Priest: Urijah (?) [Ahaz evidently became tributary to Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria.]
753: Rome was founded.
748: Hoshea begins his rule [9-yrs.] Hoshea assassinated Pekah and then began his reign in place of him, however, it seems that his control became fully established or possibly he received the backing of the Assyrian monarch Tiglath-pileser III in c. 748 BC
746: Hezekiah begins his rule [29-yrs.] Prophets: Micah, Hosea, Isaiah / High Priest: Azariah (II or III)
745: The book of Hosea is written
740: Ten-tribe kingdom of ISRAEL destroyed by the ASSYRIAN EMPIRE. ASSYRIA attains prominence as the SECOND WORLD POWER
732: The book of Isaiah is written
716: The book of Micah is written
716: Manasseh begins his rule [55-yrs.]
716: The book of Proverbs is written by Solomon, Agur & Lemuel
700: During the 8th. century BC, the Shinto religion sprang up in Japan
671: Assyrians conquest of Egypt
669-624: Ashubanipal was the greatest ruler of Assyria, Capital Nineveh with a great Library at the time.
661: Amon begins his rule [2-yrs.]
659: Josiah begins his rule [31-yrs.] Prophets: Zephaniah, Jeremiah, the prophetess Hulda / High Priest: Hilkiah
650: Iron technology in China.
650: Earliest Latin inscriptions.
648: The book of Zephaniah is written
633: Nineveh falls to Medes and Caldeans BABYLON now in line to become THIRD WORLD POWER
632: The book of Nahum is written
628: Jehoahaz begins his rule [3-mos.]
628: Jehoikim begins his rule [tributary to Egypt for 11-yrs.] Prophets: Habakkuk (?), Jeremiah
628: The book of Habakkuk is written
621: Laws of Draco in Athens.
618: Jehoiachin begins his rule [3-mos., 10-days] Nebuchadnezzar II took Jewish captives and temple treasures to Babylon
617: Zedekiah begins his rule [11-yrs.] Prophets: Jeremiah, Ezekiel / High Priest: Seraiah [Nebuchadnezzar II invaded Judah again, siege of Jerusalem began in 609 BC, walls of Jerusalem were breached on the 9th day of the 4th month of 607 BC, Jerusalem and its temple were burned on the 10th day of the 5th month of 607 BC, lastly Jews abandoned Judah about the middle of the 7th month of 607 BC
607: Two-tribe kingdom of JUDAH destroyed by New Babylonian Empire. BABYLON becomes the THIRD WORLD POWER, The King Nebuchadnezzar ruled the Empire, Jews were exciled.
607: The book of Lamentations written by Jeremiah near Jerusalem. The book of Obadiah written
607: Beginning of the "Gentile Times" or "The Appointed Times of the Nations" [to last 2,520 years, as prophesied in Ezekiel 21:25-27. Jerusalem destroyed by Babylon, land is left desolate for 70-years.] We will see the historical record of man's rule especially during the "Appointed Times of the Nations" how as wise king Solomon said at Ecclesiastes 8:9 "All this I have seen, and there was an applying of my heart to every work that has been done under the sun, [during] the time that man has dominated man to his injury
600: Age of Greek lric poetry.
600: Philosophers in Ionia first proposed that, instead of by supernatural manipulation, the universe operated on a cause and effect basis, and that "Natural Law" was comprehensible by man. This philosophy is the foundation of modern science.
600: Chinese alchemy was founded by Lau Tzu.
596: Babylonians destroy Jerusalem.
581: First Phythian Games.
581: Building of Shwe Dagon Pagoda, Myanmar.
580: The books of 1st & 2nd Kings completed in one roll also the book of Jeremiah completed
571: The book of Ezekiel written in Babylon
551: Confucian Era begins in China, Taoism in China begins in the 5th or 6th century BC
550: Cyrus the Great ( 580-529 BC) begins expansion of Persian Empire.
550: Abacus developed in China.
543: Buddhist Era begins in India
539: Babylon captured by Cyrus of Persia. MEDO-PERSIA becomes the FOURTH WORLD POWER
539-65: Decline of Phoenicia. Cyrus the Great conquered Phoenicia in 539 BC. The Persians divided Phoenicia into four vassal kingdoms: Sidon, Tyre, Arwad and Byblos. They prospered, furnishing fleets for the Persian kings. Phoenician influence declined after this. It is likely that much of the Phoenician population migrated to Carthage and other colonies following the Persian conquest. In 350 or 345 BC a rebellion in Sidon led by Tennes was crushed by Artaxerxes III. Its destruction was described by Diodorus Siculus.
537: Jews repatriated to their homeland, return from exile in Babylon. The book of Daniel written c. 536 BC
536: The book of Daniel written in Babylon
530: Pythagoras founds a school in Greece.
530: Temple of Apollo built at Corinth.
530: Cyrus the Great dies his son Cambyses succeeds him. Cambyses rules from 530-522 BC
521: Darius the Great divides Persian Empire into strapies.
520: Death of Lao Zi, founder of Taoism.
520: The book of Haggai written after Jerusalem is rebuilt
518: The book of Zechariah written after Jerusalem is rebuilt
509-27: Foundation of Roman Republic, the last Etrusk king exiled in 509.
500-0: Pre Roman Iron Age in Finland.
500: Alcmaeon of Ionia made the first studies of anatomy and embryology, but many of his ideas were lost for almost two thousand years
490: In a campaign against Greece at Marathon, Darius I is defeated. (Darius I is the same Darius the Mede, mentioned in the book of Daniel, who was king when Daniel was thrown into the lion's pit.) Darius I dies in 486 BC, his son Xerxes (Ahasuerus, the husband of Biblical Queen Esther) succeeds his father
486-485: Xerxes I, (Ahasuerus, the husband of Biblical Queen Esther), launched massive forces against the Greek mainland in the year 486/485 BC, in retaliation for the defeat suffered at Marathon, following a costly victory at Thermopylae and the destruction of Athens, Xerxes' forces met a naval defeat at Salamis in 480 BC, and later at Plataea, causing Xerxes to return to Persia. Xerxes is assassinated by one of his courtiers
483: Death of Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism.
480: Persians defeat Greeks at Thermopylae.
480: Greeks destroy Persian fleet at Salamis.
479: Death of Confucius.
475: Artaxerxes Longimanus, (he was surnamed Longimanus because his right hand was longer than his left hand), or Artaxerxes I, Xerxes I's successor, authorizes Ezra's return to Jerusalem with a large contribution for the support of the temple in 468 BC,. Books of 1st & 2nd Chronicles completed in one roll c. 460 BC; Book of Ezra written c. 460 BC; the book of Psalms completed c. 460 BC; the book of Esther written 474 BC
474: Mordecia writes the book of Esther at Shushan, and Elam
469-399: Time of Socrates a Creek Philosopher.  He is today considered as one of the best examples of a lover of wisdom of the western world history.  Too poor to take the formal course of instruction from the Sophists, he thought for himself.   He would engage other Athenians in debate and discussion, searching for the truth.   Those who claimed to know were subjected to his rigorous dialectic, and often were made to look ridiculous. So he made enemies. He was not a friend of the Athenian democracy, which was something like mob rule, so he found himself, as an old man, in political trouble.  This trouble took the form of a suit against Socrates.  He was charged with teaching belief in false gods and corrupting the young.   Of course, being a man without wealth at the time, he was convicted, and executed by forcing to drink poison.  Even during his last hours he carried on a philosophical dialogue with his students and friends about the immortality of the soul!   He proposed that, because there were far more fools than wise men in the world, any majority decision must be worthless (his peers agreed and approved his proposition by a large majority).
462: Pericles' reforms Athens.
460: Construction of Temple of Zeus at Olympia.
460: The books of 1st and  2nd Chronicles written by Jeremiah in one roll, Ezra writes the book of Ezra, the book of Psalms completed
456: Death of Aeschylus.
455: Jerusalem's walls are rebuilt. Artaxerxes Longimanus commissioned his Jewish cupbeared Nehemiah to be governor of Judea and to go to Jerusalem and rebuild its walls. This began the 70-weeks of years as prophesied at Daniel 9:1-27, which set the dates for the appearance and the death of the Messiah or Christ, Jesus of Nazareth (Nehemiah1:1; 2:1-18). the book of Nehemiah written a. 443 BC; the book of Malachi written a. 443 BC
450: Codification of Roman law ( the Twelve Tables )
443: The book of Nehemiah written in Jerusalem, also the book of Malachi completed
433: Parthenon Temple completed at Athens.
431-404: Peloponnesian War.
427-347: Time of Plato, a Creek philosopher.  Plato turned out to be Socrates' best and most famous student.  It is to Plato's writings that we owe most of what we know about Socrates.  Plato took Socrates' dialectical search for definitions of such ideas as justice, beauty and goodness, and constructed a deep and sophisticated theory, the Theory of Forms, which held that all things in the visible world are only imperfect copies of the changeless Forms.  Plato also developed the doctrines that knowledge is recollection of the Forms by the soul, that virtue is knowledge, and that the soul is immortal, all of which probably originated with Socrates.   In the Republic Plato explains justice and presents his ideal state, ruled by the wise.  His idealism, his faith in reason and order, his moral sensitivity and his literary genius have made him one of the great men of world history.  Through St. Augustine his philosophy found its way into early Christianity.
425: Death of Herodotus.
406: Death of Sophocles
403: Overthrow of the Thirty Tyrants in Athens.
400: Hippocrates put forth the view that the human body was a machine of sorts, and that disease was a malfunction of this machine and not the intervention of demons
387: The Gallians Destroy Rome.
384-322: Time of Aristotle, a Creek philosopher and scientist.  Aristotle was a student at Plato's Academy for twenty years, but he gradually came to reject Plato's philosophy in favor of his own.  He felt that Plato's theory of Forms was wrong to deny the reality of change, and so he developed his doctrine of the Four Causes in order to explain change.  His work covered the whole range of human knowledge.  He invented formal logic and the separate sciences of biology, astronomy, physics, and psychology.  He introduced such basic distinctions- as matter and form, substance and accident, and actual and potential.  He wrote on politics, poetry and drama, and in his Nichomachean Ethics he argued that virtue was a mean between extremes, a "Golden Mean."  His influence on the thought of the ancient world, his revival by the Arab philosophers of medieval times, and his incorporation into Christianity by St. Thomas Aquinas, place Aristotle in the first rank of those who have shaped western civilization.  Dante, in the Divine Comedy, called him simply "the master of those who know."  He was tutor to Alexander the Great, who conquered the ancient world by the age of 20.  Legend has it that Aristotle considered Alexander the Great as one of his failures.
377: Death of Hippocrates.
370: Plato opens Academy in Athens.
359: Philip of Macedon becomes king of Macedonia.
356-323: Alexander the Great
351: Rome conquers Etruria
350: Tomb of Mausolus completed.
350: Maiden Castle constructed in England
347: Death of Plato.
337: Assassination of Philip of Macedon.
332: Alexander the Great defeats the Persian Empire, (he takes as wife Statira, the daughter of Darius III., he also has a wife, (Roxana), the daughter of a conquered Bactrain king by whom he has a son, Alexander (Allou). GREECE becomes the FIFTH WORLD POWER.. The Grecian Empire was depicted in Nebuchadnezzar's dream as the "belly and thighs of bronze [or copper]." Alexander's kingdom was divided between his generals after his death in 323 BC One-eyed General Antigonus, after attempting to set himself up as lord of all Asia, and finally took the title of king after Alexander's death, claiming to be his heir. (Seleucus Nicator taking Mesopotamia & Syria; Cassander taking Macedonia & Greece; Ptolemy Lagus taking Egypt & Palestine; Lysimachus taking Thrace & Asia Minor.) Daniel chapter 8, Daniel chapter 11, Ezekiel chapter 26 & Jeremiah chapter 51.
331: Darius III, succeeding Artaxerxes I in order were King Xerxes II; Darius II (the Persian); Artaxerxes II (surnamed Mnemon); Artaxerxes III (surnamed Ochus); Arses who reigned for two years 338-336 BC; and finally Darius III (surnamed Codomanus), whose reign was abruptly terminated in 331 BC With him the Persian world power, symbolized by the silver breast and arms of Nebuchadnezzar's dream image, ended. This was by his defeat that year in the battle of Gaugamela, near where Nineveh, capital of the Assyrian Empire once stood. He was defeated there by the Macedonian or Grecian Empire, the FIFTH WORLD POWER of Bible prophecy, namely, Alexander the Great
329: Alexander the Great reaches India.
323: Alexander the Great dies.
323-317: Philip Aridaeus, (Phillip III) the brother of Alexander the Great began to rule after the death of Alexander, however he was murdered at the instance of Olympias, his mother
323-285: Ptolemy I, (son of Ptolemy Lagus) rules Egypt.
322: Death of Aristotle.
317-311: Alexander Allou, (Alexander IV) Alexander the Great's son by his wife Roxana, (the daughter of the conquered Bactrian king), ruled his empire, but met his death at the hands of Cassander, one of his father's generals.
312: Ptolemy I captures Jerusalem on a sabbath day. He persuades the Jews to come south to Egypt as colonist, and a colony of Jews was established in Alexandria. With his son and successor he shared in founding the famous library and museum in Alexandria. The Jewish province of Judea stayed under control of Ptolemaic Egypt or the KING OF THE SOUTH until 198 BC, when the KING OF THE NORTH took over.
311-309: Heracles, (or Hercules) the illegitimate son (his mother, a certain Barcine) of Alexander the Great sought to rule the empire in his father's name but he was murdered in 309 BC, Thus ending the line of Alexander, "his dominion" departing from his family.
310: Epicurus opens school of philosophy at Mitylene.
306:Ptolemy I the son of Lagus, (one of Alexander the Great's eight bodyguards), who was made the satrap of Egypt but assumed the title of king in 306 BC, in imitation of one-eyed General Antigonus. Ptolemy I becomes the KING OF THE SOUTH in Daniel's prophecy, at Daniel 11:5, He was first of thirteen or fourteen Macedonian kings or Pharaohs of Egypt. According to his name, he established the Ptolemaic line of rulers over Egypt
304: Foundation of Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.
301: One-eyed General Antigonus, is killed and is defeated in battle after meeting the confederacy of three other generals against him, Cassander, Selecus, and Lysimachus. He fell in battle against them at the Ipsus in Phyrgia, Asia Minor, in 301 BC, The four Hellenistic empires that resulted were (1.) that of General Cassander in Macedonia and Greece; (2.) that of General Lysimachus in Asia Minor and European Thrace, including Byzantium; (3.) that of General Seleucus Nicator (the Conqueror), who secured Babylon, Media, Syria, Persia and the provinces east of the Indus River; and (4.) that of Ptolemy Lagus, who secured Egypt, Libya, Arabia and Palestine and Coele-Syria. In a few years the male line of General Cassander died out, and in 285 BC, General Lysimachus took possession of the European part of the Macedonian Empire.
300: Euclid teaching in Alexandria.
290: Foundation of library at Alexandria.
285: General Lysimachus took possession of the European part of the Macedonian Empire. However, in 277 BC, Antigonus Gonatas, the grandson of one-eyed General Antigonus, gained possession of the throne of Macedonia after General Lysimachus fell in battle, (281 B.C.(J)) before General Seleucus Nicator, reducing the Hellenistic empires to three
285-246: Ptolemy II, (Philadelphus) KING OF THE SOUTH rules Egypt.
281: General Lysimachus dies and is defeated in battle before General Seleucus Nicator and thus left Seleucus practically the master of all of the Asian territories.
280-272: Rome conquers Pyrrhos
280: Seleucus Nicator is assassinated after transferring the capital from Babylon to Seleucia, a new city he had built, the Seleucid dynasty of kings that he left to succeed him continued in power until 64 BC, Antiochus I, his son succeeds him to the throne. Antiochus I dies in battle fighting the Galatians in Asia Minor, he is succeeded by his son Antiochus II. (Daniel's prophecy of the KING OF THE NORTH & the KING OF THE SOUTH, Dan. chap. 11, has its first & minor fulfillment between Seleucus Nicator of Syria & Ptolemy Lagus of Egypt, for further information see yw pgs. 221-63, in the year 191 BC, Rome formally declared war on Antiochus III, in 190 BC, Antiochus III was decisively defeated by the Roman commander Lucius Scipio Asiaticus.)
280: A group of Hebrew scholars are gathered to Alexandria, Egypt to translate the Hebrew Bible into the popular Koine [or common] Greek language which came to be known as the Greek Septuagint [Latin for "seventy," referring to the approximate number of translators believed to be involved]
277: Antigonus Gonastas, the grandson of one-eyed General Antigonas, gained possession of the throne of Macedonia after General Lysimachus fell in battle before General Seleucus Nicator

276-195: Around 250 BC, the Greek mathematician Eratosthenes (276BC -195BC) proved that the earth was round and calculated its circumference with remarkable accuracy and proved the earth to be round. He was the first person to use the word "geography" and invented the discipline of geography as we understand it.He invented a system of latitude and longitude. He was the first person to calculate the circumference of the earth by using a measuring system using stades, or the length of stadiums during that time period.

He may also have accurately calculated the distance from the earth to the sun and invented the leap day. He also created a map of the world based on the available geographical knowledge of the era. In addition, Eratosthenes was the founder of scientific chronology; he also endeavored to fix the dates of the chief literary and political events from the conquest of Troy. According to the Suda (a 10th century reference), his contemporaries nicknamed him beta, from the second letter of the Greek alphabet, because he supposedly proved himself to be the second best in the world in almost every field.

Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the earth while in Egypt. Eratosthenes knew that on the summer solstice at local noon in the Ancient Egyptian city of Swenet (known in Greek as Syene, and in the modern day as Aswan) on the Tropic of Cancer, the sun would appear at the zenith, directly overhead. He also knew, from measurement, that in his hometown of Alexandria, the angle of elevation of the sun would be 1/50 of a full circle (7°12') south of the zenith at the same time. Assuming that Alexandria was due north of Syene he concluded that the meridian arc distance from Alexandria to Syene must be 1/50 of the total circumference of the earth. His estimated distance between the cities was 5000 stadia (about 500 geographical miles or 800 km) by estimating the time that he had taken to travel from Syene to Alexandria by camel. He rounded the result to a final value of 700 stadia per degree, which implies a circumference of 252,000 stadia. The exact size of the stadion he used is frequently argued. The common Attic stadion was about 185 m, which would imply a circumference of 46,620 km, i.e. 16.3% too large. However, if we assume that Eratosthenes used the "Egyptian stadion" of about 157.5 m, his measurement turns out to be 39,690 km, an error of less than 1%.

290-241: The end approches the Phoenician culture: Rome destroyd Carthage in the First Punic War, 264-241 BC. The city was burned to ground and totally destroyed. As the story tells all it's people were either killed or taken to slavery. The fields around it were sawn with salt to prevent the Carthage from ever becoming a trading and maritime power on the Mediterranean. In earlier times the Roman emperors had used Carthage as place of exile and sent ther those family members that were "undesirables" to them in Rome creating with this a problem to themselves they tried to finish in the first Punic war 264-241 BC. Some of the nobility escaped to and settled down in Northern Italy calling themselve now as Sepharvaims. The descendants of these Sepharvaims were found 1400 years later in Venice and Genoa as married to the noblity in these cities forming the "Black Nobility", or better known as the Venetian Black Nobility.

In terms of archaeology, language, and religion, there is little to set the Phoenicians apart as markedly different from other cultures of Canaan. They all were Canaanites. They were unique in their remarkable seafaring achievements. In the Amarna tablets 14th century BC, they call themselves Kenaani or Kinaani (Canaanites). Note, however, that the Amarna letters predate the invasion of the Sea Peoples by over a century. Much later in the 6th century BC, Hecataeus of Miletus writes that Phoenicia was formerly called χνα, a name Philo of Byblos later adopted into his mythology as his eponym for the Phoenicians: "Khna who was afterwards called Phoinix". Egyptian seafaring expeditions had already been made to Byblos to bring back cedars of Lebanon as early as the third millennium BC.

Genetic studies, e.g. by by Spencer Wells of the Genographic Project has conducted genetic studies that demonstrate that male populations of Lebanon, Malta, Spain, and other areas settled by Phoenicians, share a common m89 chromosome Y type. Male populations in areas associated with Minoan or with the Sea People settlement have completely different genetic markers. This implies that Minoans and Sea Peoples probably did not have ancestral relation with the Phoenicians.

In 2004, two Harvard University educated geneticists and leading scientists of the National Geographic Genographic Project, Dr. Pierre Zalloua and Dr. Spencer Wells identified "the haplogroup of the Phoenicians" as with avenues open for future research. The male populations of Tunisia and Malta were also included in this study. They were shown to share "overwhelming" genetic similarities with the Lebanese. In 2008, scientists from the Genographic Project announced that "as many as 1 in 17 men living today on the coasts of North Africa and southern Europe may have a Phoenician direct male-line ancestor."

250: Writing of the Septuagint.
250: King Ptolemy II, KING OF THE SOUTH waged two wars with the Syrian KING OF THE NORTH, Antiochus II (Theos). The two kings entered into a peace arrangement. As the price of this alliance or "agreement" the Syrian KING OF THE NORTH must marry Bernice the daughter of Ptolemy II. Antiochus II was already married to Laodice. So this obliged him to divorce her in order to marry the Egyptian Bernice. By Bernice, Antiochus II of Syria had a son, who became heir to the throne of the KING OF THE NORTH to the exclusion of the sons of his first wife Laodice. (Daniel 11:5, 6)
246: Ptolemy II dies, hence Bernice his daughter does not "retain the strength of her arm" (Daniel 11:6) with her husband King Antiochus II of Syria. He rejected her, and took back his first wife, Laodice, and named her first son, Seleucus Callinicus, to be his successor to the Syrian throne. Bernice and her infant son are murdered, along with her Egyptian attendants by plans of Laodice. Laodice also poisoned her husband Antiochus II who had taken her back.
246-221: Ptolemy III (Evergetes), Bernice's brother now became KING OF THE SOUTH, he came into the stronghold of the KING OF THE NORTH and dealt out death to the queen mother Laodice for the death of his sister. (Daniel 11:7) Ptolemy III overran Syria, captured the fortified part of the capital city of Antioch and also its seaport, Seleucia. Internal troubles in Egypt forced Ptolemy III to return, after taking back spoils that had been robbed from Egypt by Persian King Cambyses, (Daniel 11:8). Taking advantage of this situation Seleucus II Callinicus, (the Gloriously Thriumphant) struck back in revenge only to meet with defeat. He retreated to his Syrian capital of Antioch. He died before his humiliator, Ptolemy III of Egypt. His son Seleucus III, surnamed Ceraunus ("Thunderbolt") succeeded him only to be assassinated after reigning less than three years. His brother Antiochus III succeeds him and became called "the Great."
238: Hamilcar begins conquest of Spain.
221-207: Qin  Dynasty in China, China is united
221: Beginning of Great Wall of China.
221-203: Ptolemy IV (Philopater) rules Egypt as KING OF THE SOUTH.
220-179: Philip V of Macedonia rules.
218: Hannibal invades Italy.
218-201: Second Punic War, Hannibal defeated, Romans arrive Spain
212: Death of Archimedes.
209: Antiochus III defeats the Parthians. The following year 208 BC, he carries his conquest even further eastward, against the Bactrians deep in Asia.
206-9 AD: Western Han Dynasty in China, 
205: Scipio completes conquest of Spain
203-181: Ptolemy V (Epiphanes) rules Egypt as KING OF THE SOUTH.
200: Greek culture fully adopted in Rome
200:Parthians made a crude battery (in present day Baghdad) using a clay pot filled with vinegar using an iron rod in center surrounded with a copper cylinder.  This curiosity item remained as such until 1780 and 1800 when the italians Galvani and Volta started their experiments.
198: Antiochus III proved victorious. He drove Egypt's General Scopas and his 100,000 picked troops or "chosen people" back into the Phoenician seaport of Sidon, a "well-fortified city." Here he "cast up a mound" or siegeworks. He took Sidon in 198 BC, for the bottled-up General Scopas was forced to surrender because of famine. Antiochus III pressed forward "according to his own will," as the forces of the KING OF THE SOUTH were unable to stand before him. He captured more cities and proceeded against the capital of the "beautious land," Jerusalem, with its rebuilt sanctuary. (Daniel 11:15, 16) Jerusalem and Judea passed from under the domination of the KING OF THE SOUTH to the KING OF THE NORTH.
196: Antiochus III aimed to have Syria dominate Egypt. Ptolemy V Epiphanes, king of Egypt, was only five years old, when Antiochus III and Philip V of Macedonia leagued against the boy king to take over his territories and split them between themselves, the guardians of Ptolemy V made a tragic mistake. They turned to Rome and placed him under the protection of that aggressive power. Under compulsion of Rome, Antiochus III brought terms of peace to the KING OF THE SOUTH. For a selfish reason he decided to make the boy king his son-in-law. Instead of making an outright surrender of his conquered territories in obedience to Rome, he would make a nominal transfer of territory to King Ptolemy V by means of the "daughter of women," (Daniel 11:17), Cleopatra, the "daughter of his wife." In consideration of this political marriage she was to receive as dowry from her father the conquered provinces of Coele-Syria, Palestine and Phoenicia.
193: Ptolemy V is declared of legal age and is crowned KING OF THE SOUTH at the age of eight. His marriage to Cleopatra is performed. Antiochus III did not actually let the dowry of conquered territories pass over to his southern son-in-law by way of his daughter Cleopatra, she became Queen Cleopatra I of Egypt, (seven successive queens of Egypt also carried the name Cleopatra), the intent of this political marriage was to "destroy it," or to bring Egypt to ruin, making it subject to Syria. But this scheme did not stand, and the advantage did not remain with Syrian King Antiochus III. In the difficulties that followed, Cleopatra took the side of her young husband rather than that of her Syrian father. In this way she frustrated the selfish designs of her father Antiochus III. When at last war broke out between her father and Rome, Egypt took the side of her protector, Rome.
192: Antiochus III met with reversals, it happened that war broke out in Greece in 192 BC, and King Antiochus III was induced to come to Greece, he landed there that year. He captured Chalcis, gained a foothold in Boeotia and tried to take over Thessaly but retreated before the Macedonian army.
191: Rome declares war on Antiochus III, who was then at Acarnania. He returned to Chalcis. At Thermopylae he met the Romans and suffered defeat. He sailed back to Asia Minor to his capital at Ephesus. The Romans purposed to oust the KING OF THE NORTH from Asia, battles at sea were fought. Antiochus III was defeated, he abandoned Lysimachia on the Chersonese peninsula. By giving up Lysimachia he left the way for the Romans to cross the Hellespont into Asia Minor.
190: A decisive battle took place at Magnesia, near Ephesus, and Antiochus III with 80,000 men lost to the Roman "commander," Lucius Scipio Asiaticus. The KING OF THE NORTH was now willing to make peace with Rome.
189: Final peace arrangements were made, Antiochus III was required to disown everything in Asia Minor, everything west of the Taurus Mountains, as well as everything in Greece. He must pay 15,000 talents to Rome and 500 talents to her ally, Eumenes, king of Pergamum, who had helped defeat Antiochus III at Magnesia. As a further reward King Eumenes received European territory and all the possessions of Antiochus III in Asia Minor as far as the Taurus Mountains. Rome thus established a dominion over the Syrian KING OF THE NORTH. One of his sons, who became Antiochus IV, lived as a boy at Rome, as a hostage.
187: After being driven from Greece and losing Asia Minor and practically all of his fleet, Antiochus III turned his face back towards the strongholds of his own land. The Romans had turned back his reproach against themselves upon his own self. He was pressed to pay the large fine to Rome. In 187 B.C.(J), while trying to rob the temple at Belus at Elymais in Persia, he was killed. He staggered and fell in death. He left two sons, Seleucus and Antiochus, to succeed him.
181-146: Ptolemy VI (Philometor) rules Egypt as KING OF THE SOUTH.
175: Antiochus IV of Syria, (KING OF THE NORTH of Daniel chapter 11), rules over the Jews, Antiochus is not tolerant of the worship given to Jehovah. Hoping to unify all peoples under his domain created one religion for all, with himself as "god manifest."
168: Macedonia becomes dependent upon Rome.
168: Antiochus IV, (KING OF THE NORTH of Daniel chapter 11), erects an altar to the Greek god Zeus on top of Jehovah's altar in the temple courtyard. Judas Maccabeus attacks Ashdod, later in 148 BC Ashdod came under attack by Judas Maccabeus' brother Johnathan, during this second attack the temple of Dagon was burned down. Macedonia becomes dependent upon Rome in 168 BC, and in 146 BC, becomes a Roman province further reducing the Hellenistic empires to two, that of the KING OF THE NORTH and the KING OF THE SOUTH.
168: Revolt of the Maccabees against Antiochus IV.
167: Judas Maccabeus, a Levite priest, became leader of a resistance movement against the Syrian rule of Antiochus IV.
166: Judas Maccabeus recaptures Jerusalem from Syrian rule.
165: Temple rededicated to Jehovah. Jewish celebration of Hanukkah begins in commemoration of this event. Beginning a period of rule of Maccabean kings, in the order in which they ruled as follows: Simon Maccabeus, John Hyrcanus I, Aristobulus I, Alexander Jannaeus and his widow Salome Alexandra, Aristobulus II, John Hyrcanus II, and the last Hasmonean king, Antigonus, who was deposed and executed by the Romans under Mark Antony. Jewish political parties were formed such as the pro-Hasmonean Sadducees and the anti-Hasmonean Pharisees, these ruled until 63 BC, when Rome sent General Pompey to interfere with political party squabbling. Rome begins to come into the role of the KING OF THE NORTH, but not until 64 BC, when Rome annexes Syria does this transition completely take place. See Daniel's prophecy at Daniel 11:20-22.
163: Antiochus IV won his war with Egypt. He had himself crowned as king of Egypt. Then the Roman fleet brought its ambassador Caius Popilius Laenas with orders from the Roman Senate that Antiochus IV renounce his kingship of Egypt and quit the country. The Syrian king did so, but kept his hold on Coele-Syria, Palestine and Phoenicia. In 163 BC, he died as a temple looter in Persia. After him there were many more independent kings of the Seleucid dynasty in Syria.
161: The Maccabees made a treaty with Rome, the first of theirs on record.
150: Greek Septuagint version of the Hebrew Bible is completed.
149-146: Rome, Karthago destroyed.
147-146: Greece is made a province of Rome.
146: Romans destroy Corinth.
146: Macedonia is made a province of Rome.
146: Ptolemy (Eupator) rules Egypt as KING OF THE SOUTH.
146-117: Ptolemy VII ( Physkon), surnamed Evergetes II, rules Egypt as KING OF THE SOUTH.
139: Jews expelled from Rome for proselytizing. The government of Rome according to tradition was founded in the year 753 BC, in 710 BC, King Numa Pompillius set himself up in the office of Pontifex Maximus at Rome, the very office occupied by the head of the Catholic Church, he was a pagan Etruscan magic-practicing priest.
133: Rome, Barcelona conquered.
121: Rome and early Gaul, Rome established a protectorate over the old Greek colony at Massalia (now Marseille, France) and then founded another settlement farther inland at Narbonne, which in turn became the center of the flourishing province of Gallia Narbonensis.
117-81: Ptolemy VIII (Lathyrus), surnamed Solter II, and his mother, Cleopatra rule Egypt as KING OF THE SOUTH, though it is not clear as to which Cleopatra this was since there were a total of seven Cleopatras that ruled in Egypt.
110: Opening of Silk Road across Central Asia.
108-105: Rome, war against Numidia.
107-89: Ptolemy IX, (or, Alexander I) rules Egypt, though his rule runs concurrently with Ptolemy VIII is not clear.
104: The Maccabees establish a kingdom, when Aristobulus I assumed the title of king.
100-44: Julius Caesar
100: Dionysius Thrax writes first Greek grammer.
90-88: Rome, Alliance wars, citizenship awarded to allied peoples
82-79: Rome, Sulla as a dictator
81-80: Ptolemy X (or, Alexander II) rules Egypt as KING OF THE SOUTH.
80-51: Ptolemy XI (Auletes) rules Egypt as KING OF THE SOUTH.
65: Antiochus XIII the last king of the Seleucid dynasty of kings is dethroned by Roman General Gnaeus Pompey the Great.
64: Roman General Gnaeus Pompey annexes Syria as a Roman province, therefore Rome becomes the KING OF THE NORTH of Daniel's prophecy at Daniel 11:20-22.
63: Roman General Gnaeus Pompey lays a three month siege to Jerusalem and captures it, the Egyptian KING OF THE SOUTH was powerless to prevent it. Rome annexes Judea to the Roman Empire. ROME becomes the SIXTH WORLD POWER. (63 BC ... 800 AD) Herod the Great is appointed king of the Jews in 40 or 39 BC, and in 37 BC, Herod effectively crushes the Hasmonean [Sadducees] rule.
60-49: Rome, First triumphitrate, Caesar as a ruler.
58-49: Julius Caesar conquers the rest of Gaul. The newly conquered lands were called Gallia Belgica, Gallia Lugdunensis, and Aquitania. The main center of administration was Lugdunum (modern Lyon, France), Paris (Lutetia) in 52, The Romans occupy Egypt (55-51 BC) after restoring Ptolemy XI to the throne.
54: Rome, Koln/Germany conquered.
51: Cleopatra becomes Queen of Egypt.
51-47: Ptolemy XII and his sister Cleopatra VII rule Egypt as KING OF THE SOUTH. Julius Caesar defeats Ptolemy XII who drowns.
50: Julius Caesar writes account of Gallic Wars
47-43: Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII rule Egypt as KING OF THE SOUTH.
46: Adoption of Julian Calendar
45: Julius Gaius Caesar is elected Pontifex Maximus, as such he is not only the head of the Roman state, he is the head of the Roman religion, all of the powers and functions of the true Babylonian Pontiff were supremely vested in him, and he found himself in a position to exert these powers. ...Then, on certain occasions, in the exercise of his high pontifical office, he appeared of course in all the pomp of the Babylonian costume, as Balthazar himself might have done, in robes of scarlet, with the crozsiers of Nimrod in his hand, wearing the mite of Dagon [the fish god] and bearing the keys of Janus [t he two-faced god] and Cybele [the "mother" goddess]. Notice the similarities in false religion today.
44: Julius Caesar is murdered in the Roman Senate.
43: Death of Cicero.
43-31: Rome, 2nd Triuphirate, Marcus Antonius, Octavianus
43-30: Cleopatra VII and her son Ceasarian, (illegitimate son of Julius Caesar) nominally coregent under the name Ptolemy XIV ruling Egypt as KING OF THE SOUTH.
39: Herod the Great succeeds his father Antipater II to the throne, appointed king by Rome the SIXTH WORLD POWER.
37: Herod the Great captures Jerusalem and establishes himself as king, to end Maccabean rule.
31: Battle of Actium, in which Octavius defeats Mark Anthony and Cleopatra, Beginning of Roman Empire.
30: Death of Antony and Cleopatra.
30: Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt the KING OF THE SOUTH commits suicide, Egypt becomes a Roman province, subject to the KING OF THE NORTH
27-395 AD: The Roman Empire.  The Western Roman Empire continued until 476 AD.
27-14: Caesar Augustus (Octavianus) rules the Roman Empire as it's First Emperor
27: In the battle for power Octavius finally came forth as the sole ruler of Rome and became the first Roman emperor. He turned down the titles of rex ("king") and dictator. Finally, in 27 BC, by decree of the Roman Senate, he was styled Augustus. The Greeks translated this title as Sebastos, which means "Reverend One."
19: Death of Virgil.
6: Annexation of Judaea by Rome.
5: Birth of Jesus of Nazareth.
4: Masada, a stronghold built by Judean king Herod the Great due to the threat that Egypt and Queen Cleopatra VII represented, is captured and turned into a Roman garrison after Herod's death the same year 4 BC.
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